Antique Maps


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 Planispheric representation of the Ptolemaic system.

 "The human eye organizes the composition of the universe according to the order it can perceive in the earth it is on, becoming the center of all space Wherever I look, I am struck by the admirable sphericity of the sky ... And I have believes that the terrestrial globe is at the center of everything "(Andreas Cellarius).

 The figure represents the juxtaposition of the four elements in the region called sublunar by the ancient philosophers. The terrestrial globe is composed of earth and water, heavy and impure elements, then the air is added and finally, next to the lunar sphere, fire, the most subtle and purest element of all.

Representation of the planetary orbits that surround the Earth.

"Most philosophers of antiquity thought that the universe was composed of concentric circles or spheres containing one another, solid and hard as diamond, also thought that the stars were comparable to points nailed to the wall of a ship or other moving object .. that printed the rotating movement "(A. Celliarius).

The farthest and most opaque sphere of the fixed stars was called primum mobile, the "first movement", because moved by divine love, it printed its movement to all other spheres.

The planisphere of Brahe, or the structure of the universe from the hypothesis that Tycho Brahe pointed out, seen in a plain.

Tycho Brahe achieved the synthesis of the contradictory systems of Ptolemy and Copernicus, striving to make "more credible the geocentric arrangement of the worlds ... the hierarchy of the orbits commands it as follows: the moon revolves around the earth located at the center of the universe, in a concentric orbit to this, as the sun does. The Earth is, in turn, the center of the remaining five planets, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, which rotate concentrically around the sun but with an eccentric orbit in relation to the Earth. Venus and Mercury are the only fixed satellites of the sun in their trajectory around the earth ... "(A. Cellarius)

The planisphere of Copernicus or the system of the entire universe created according to the Copernicus hypothesis, in a flat view.

The relationship that the seven planetary spheres maintain with the sun, its center, is in the Copernican system, for the mystic and astronomer Kepler, comparable to that between "discursive thought and the extreme simplicity of mystical cognition" (Harmonice Mundi, 1619, ed. Leipzig 1925).

In 1507 overwhelmed by the inaccuracy of the calendar of the time and after having examined the reasons, Copernicus concludes that the calendar is best prepared if it is based on a heliocentric conception of the world. He could quote in his favor the works of astronomers and philosophers of antiquity such as Aristarchus of Samos (circa 300 BC), Heraclides of Pontus, Nicetas of Syracuse and others.